The Oxford English Dictionary defines “avunculate” as follows: The special relationship existing in some societies between a maternal uncle and his sister’s son; maternal uncles regarded as a collective body. When a woman’s son lives near her brother, he is able to more easily learn how he needs to behave in the matrilineal role he has inherited. In the Kyrgyz past a nephew, at a feast at his maternal uncle or grandfather, could take any horse from their herd or any delicacy. Modern day influences have somewhat but not completely erased this tradition. Franz Boas categorized various avunculate arrangements based on the location of residence in He also expanded the concept to incorporate other family relationships.


It was first built in during the Liao Dynasty and was reconstructed as well as enlarged under the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. Niujie in Xicheng District, where the mosque is located, is the largest area inhabited by Muslims in Beijing, the Niujie Mosque covers an area of approximately 10, square meters. The mosque reflects a mixture of Islamic and Han Chinese cultural and architectural influences, from the outside, its architecture shows traditional Chinese influence and the inside has blend of Islamic calligraphy and Chinese design.

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Bishkek Soviet power was initially established in the region in , and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR the phrase Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz. During the s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace.

Economic and social development also was notable. Many aspects of Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin , who controlled the Soviet Union from the late s until The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic’s press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers.

Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function. Marco Polo sheep on a Kyrgyzstan stamp In June , ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in the Osh Oblast southern Kyrgyzstan , where Uzbeks form a minority of the population. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced [31] and Askar Akayev , the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers in northern Kyrgyzstan , was elected president in October of that same year.

On 15 December , the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic’s name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. In , it became the Kyrgyz Republic. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In February , the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name of Bishkek.

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With a history estimated to stretch back years, Osh has long been a central city in the Fergana Valley. Osh has also been historically significant in many different eras, from being home to a large bazaar to being the birthplace of Kurmanjan Datka. Legends say that the city was founded by Solomon, or maybe Alexander the Great. No matter what the legends say, Osh has been a crucial point for merchants and traders for millennia. The bazaar, located along the Ak-Bura River, has been in its same location for many centuries.

In medieval times, Osh was an important trading city. Nomads would come from the mountains to sell livestock, and merchants would come from Asia and Europe with caravans of goods. In , Osh became part of the Khanate of Kokand, and was one of the six main trading centers in the khanate. In , the Khanate of Kokand was annexed to the Russian Empire. Kurmanjan Datka, ruler of the Alai region, near Osh, stayed independent for a while longer, but in , she led a peaceful transition to Russian power.

The story of her life was adapted for a film, and she has been honored with statues around Kyrgyzstan including one in Osh. Osh expanded under Russian rule, with European-style houses being built.

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Kazakh is a Turkic language written in Cyrillic script with many special letters but in Roman script in China since The Kazakhs, a distinct ethnic group originating with Turkic and Mongol settlers who arrived there in late antiquity first century bc , are the dominant group in the population and are primarily Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school. Islam had been adopted by the Kazakhs as early as , but many of its popular religious practices did not become common until the late 18th century.

There is also a small Jewish community. The constitution provides for freedom of religion, but there are some restrictions placed on nontraditional religious groups. All groups must register with the government to obtain legal status and conduct business transactions. Some groups, such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, have been denied this legal status. Highways totaled 82, km 51, mi in , of which about 77, km 48, mi were paved. In , General Motors Corp. The primary port is Guryev Atyrau , on the Caspian Sea.

There are 3, km 2, mi of inland waterways on the Syrdariya and Ertis Irtysh rivers. Much of the infrastructure connects Kazakhstan with Russia rather than points within Kazakhstan.

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All comfortable class accommodation with private facilities 1 night in Yurt with basic communal facilities Guide: Fully Escorted by our English speaking guides in each country Tour starting point: Arrival in Tashkent Uzbekistan Upon arrival at Tashkent International Airport, you will be met by our guide and transferred to your hotel.

Features – Overview of the Legal System of the Kyrgyz Republic and Web Resources By Sania Battalova, 18 Mar Sania Battalova is the information and computer technology specialist of the Library Center for Legal Information of the National Library of Kyrgyz Republic in Bishkek.

Kokhand rule[ edit ] Originally a caravan rest stop possibly founded by the Sogdians on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort. In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by Atabek, the Datka. Tsarist era[ edit ] In , the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area.

Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison. The site was redeveloped from onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. Soviet era[ edit ] Frunze statue near the railway station In , the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed “Frunze” after Mikhail Frunze , Lenin’s close associate who was born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of and and during the Russian civil war of the early s.

Independence era[ edit ] The early s were tumultuous. In June , a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital. The city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence later that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union. Before independence, the majority of Bishkek’s population were ethnic Russians. However, streets and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the s.

At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is also the country’s financial center, with all of the country’s 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since or now operate on a much reduced scale.

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All comfortable class accommodation with private facilities in cities, Guest houses, Home stays and Yurt in the remote areas with basic sharing facilities Guides: Fully escorted by our English speaking guides in each country Tour starting point: Daily- Minimum 2 people required Itinerary Day by day itinerary Day Ashgabat Turkmenistan On arrival at Ashgabat international airport you will be met by our guide and transfer to your hotel, afternoon city tour of Ashgabad, visit Tolkuchka bazaar.

Overnight in Grand Hotel D Day Mary Morning flight to Mary, Later sightseeing of Mary visit the ancient ruins of Merv which came under Persian, Greek, Sassanian and Moslem rule and from the 11th century was the capital of the Seljuk Turks, who controlled an empire stretching from Afghanistan to Egypt. In the 13th century Merv was destroyed by the Mongols leaving only the ruins of these numerous civilizations, later visit the History Museum, Sultan Sanjar Mausoleum and Kys Kala.

Bukhara Uzbekistan In the morning, drive to the Turkmen Uzbek border, after border formalities you will be met by our Uzbek guide, later drive to Bukhara. Bukhara Today we explore the old quarter on foot. Bukhara has been designated a World Heritage Site; the resulting restoration of some of the mosques, constructed in the 11th to 15th centuries, to make them appear as if they were built yesterday. There are even some structures still standing that date back to Zorastrian times 2, years ago.

We will also see Char Minar, a gate of an ancient madrassa long time gone. It was built in and has more in common with Indian art styles than local. We continue later to Samarkand.

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